Jumat, 25 Juli 2008

DISEASE OF PARASITIK AT FISH

DISEASE OF PARASITIK AT FISH.

ANTECEDENT.

Disease defined [by] as a(n) situation of physical, morphology and or natural function [of] change of normal condition because some cause and divided to the 2 group that is cause from within ( internal) and outside ( eksternal). Internal disease cover disparity of genetik, metabolism trouble, trouble of sekresi and weaken body endurance him. While disease of eksternal cover disease of pathogen ( parasite, mushroom, bacterium, virus) and non pathogen ( environmental and nutrisi ). Disease of parasitik represent one of [the] disease of infection which often attack fish especially [at] effort seeding.


Parasite attack can result annoyed of growth, death even degradation of fish production. Various organism having the character of parasite start from protozoa, and crusstacea of annelida. [In] free territorial water, there are is assorted [of] parasite with wide [of] variation [of] but its amount a few/little. While in activity of conducting, parasite there are with variation [of] which a few/little but its amount many.

Disease of fish parasite [is] disease which because of organism which harming fish as inang. This parasites there [is] from faction of Arthropods, Helminthes and Protozoa. Place live [at] fish there [is] which outside body like husk / lender, gill and fin. They this use Oxygen of territorial water, this group [is] referred [as] [by] ektoparasit. There [is] again parasite which [is] its life place in fish body as in in intestine, flesh muscle, brain and others. They this referred [as] [by] oxygen and endoparasit got from result of metabolism and from network oxygen getting oxygen supply of circulation of blood.

Parasite [in] territorial water environment like also fish live [in] water environment. If situation of environment irrigate its bad quality, hence will result fish of stress, but condition of to parasite very balk, till parasite multiply and its population last for fish infection, so that fish [is] pain. Besides oxygen also temperature. Temperature have an effect on to fish and also [his/its] parasite especially [in] existing territorial water [of] its zona ( deepness ) with existence of temperature type. [In] part of base territorial water of temperature earn 20° C or less, [is] on the surface of water can reach 32° C, this matter can cause fish become stress if/when its it very big.

That way also with food, if its [of] him [do] not be paid attention, and also hygiene of food materials, earn also fish become pain. If Fish do not want to eat, causing body become to weaken and storey;level of immunitas downhill.

Besides food made in also food live like worm of sutra ( Tubifex Tubifex , blood worm ( Chironomus Sp), representing medium host of protozoa and worm. That way also with Cyclops, Diaptomus and Snail which is [is] ordinary to be found [by] [in] territorial water. Hence environmental sanitasi require to be taken care of also to wild fish which often also bring parasite. Parasite fish group of adan of Arthropoda filum, for example Lenea sp, Argulus Sp, Ergasilus Sp, Lamproglena Sp, Cysmothoa Sp, of Helminthes filum there [is] Monogenea, for example Gyrodactylus sp, Dactylogyrus sp, Neobenedenia Sp, Diplozoom Sp, of Digenea there [is] Haplometrana, Opoecaelus, Clinostomum, of Cestoda Marsipometra, Bothriocephalus. Filum Nematoda for example Capilaria, Amisakis, Camalanus and from Filum Protozoa for example Myxosoma. Myxobolus, Ichthyophthirius, Trichodina, Trichodinella and others.

Disease of very rare parasite experience of epidemic like [at] disease of bacterium and virus. Disease of parasite if/when happened epizootic happened [in] certain area, because that area [is] area of enzootic, each time happened the the epidemic in place. Disease of this chronic parasite usually. If/When amount of its parasite many, epidemic newly and take time old ones. If its acute epidemic, hence its time shorten. Death of fish [at] acute [is] higher the than [at] chronic disease, and also its time [at] acute shorten to be compared to chronic disease.

Generally each;every parasite have complicated life cycle, which [is] possibility represent important matter in medication of attacked [by] fish [is] parasite. Cycle study live parasite represent important matter to determine complete handling to action. Attempt of infection with difficult parasite generally [done/conducted] [by] because difficult parasite [of] diinkubasi or looked after [at] media made in.

[At] its life cycle, parasite need inang. Some inang as life place / multiplying parasite cover
1. Host Definite : Inang, where parasite live until adult ( ex ; cestoda)
2. intermediate of Host : Inang, where parasite live until larva phase ( digenea )
3. Host Tempory : Inang, where parasite live in a word, later;then leave inang ( isopoda )
4. Host Reservoir : Inang as source of parasite for other inang ( digenea cyste).

Some factor facilitate parasite appearance for example
1. Density Stocking Density of high disperse, direct contact and existence of inang
2. Trauma Physical of handling, grading can cause hurt
3. Water Pool : quality of bad water
4. Breeding Selective : Select in way of good form and colour can result to weaken
5. Environment : change of temperature
6. Predator : Can as spreader inang
7. Conducting system : land;ground pool represent media to as cycle live parasite
8. New Species : Entry of new fish species can result entry of new parasite


Source : Asep Suhendra, BBPBATS, 2006.

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