South sea pearl
I . INDONESIA SOUTH SEA PEARL
Pearl is a type of jewel firstly found by the human being because it is found in finished form. It is indicated from its beautiful luster without being brushed first. As an archipelago state having the bays and straits protected from the big waves, Indonesia is a location suitable for the life of pearl shells
In Indonesia, the pearl cultivation experiment was begun since 1921 in Buton, South East Sulawesi, led by Dr. M.Fujita using Golden Pearl Oyster (Pinctada maxima Jameson) from Arafura Sea, especially around Aru Archipelago. In 1928 this experiment was succeeded in producing the beautiful color and luster pearl. This activity was financed by Mitsubishi Co. which then established South Sea Pearl Co.Ltd (Nanyo Shinju KK), until 1941 which then was stopped due to world War II.
Within the periode of 1958 – 1962 the experiment of pearl shells cultivation was already pioneered by Indonesia researchers from sea Fisheries Central Office which then was continued by Sea Fisheries Research Institution of Jakarta. Cultivation experiment of Pinctada margaritifira was made in Jakarta Bay and Semayang Island, Riau Archipelago while that of Pinctada lentiginosa was cultivated in Kalabahi Bay, Alor, East Nusa Tenggara. In 1960 – 1990s pearl production used natural Pinctada maxima. Since 1990s pearl production was rapidly developed after using seedling – yield shells.
II. PEARL CULTIVATION
Pearl cultivation was made in 2 phases namely :
Seeding activity was started by selecting the shell mothers, spawning and enlargement until they are ready for insertion (2 years/size above 12 cm).
Pearl enlargement activity was started by insertion preparation until it is harvested (2 years)
Globally speaking the order of activity of pearl enlargement is as follows:
(1) Pre conditioning for 1 – 2 weeks
Shells physiological preparation is made so that the shells will still be healthy and not refuse alien thing put into its body. The shells already put into the plastic bag/waring and place in the maintenance basket were hanged to the raft nearest to the insertion place.
Putting the nucleus by minor surgery at certain part of the body in gonad area through the slice at the tip of foot. Then the shells were reput into the waters at the most silent location for 7 days to give the opportunity for the wound curing.
(3) Turning Program (Tento) and post insertion maintenance
Cetain treatment by turning the shells position every 2 – 3 days for 2 – 3 months s that the pearl layering at the nucleus is even to get the perfect round pearl. Upon the complection of turning program , the x-ray examination is made to know whether the nucleus is still in the original position. Therefore the shells are arranged in a pocket net hanged at the raft with the hanging rope at the depth of 5 – 7 meters under the sea for about 24 months. Every 1 – 2 months the outer seashell is cleaned, the pocket net and hanging rope are replaced until the pearls are ready for harvest.
Cultivated pearl can be differentiated as follows :
It has a very strong luster and is beautiful in white basic color
With silver, cream, pink, golden and gold nuances. Its size is 10 – 18 mm,
Averagely 16 mm.
It has strong luster with dark black, grey and greenish colors. Its size is 9 – 16 mm, averagely 12 mm.
It has quite strong luster. Its color is white with the various nuances and its size is not more than 10 mm, averagely 9mm.
Its luster is weak and its endurance is only several years. Most of the forms are irregular (baroque) and oval. Generally speaking, for the same size the weight is less than that of sea pearl.
No spot or if any, it is at the most 1 spot. It has good luster and good and even smooth.
It has 2 spots at the most, good luster and enough smooth.
It has 3 or more spots and fair smooth.
III. PEARL DISPERSION IN INDONESIA
As an archipelago state with the bays and straits protected from the big waves, Indonesia is a location suitable for the life of pearls. The types of pearl which can be cultivated are : Pinctada maxima, Pincatada margaratifira, Pinctadafucata and Pteria penguin. The mapping finding of pearl dispersion indicates that the pearl can be cultivated and developed in the waters of West through East Areas of Indonesia. Nowadays the center of cultivation development of Pinctada maxima was spread in several regions such as Lampung. East Java, Bali, West Nusa Tenggara, East Nusa tenggara, North Sulawesi, central Sulawesi, South East Sulawesi, Maluku, North Maluku and Papua.
IV. PEARL UTILIZATION
Currently Indonesia especially produces South Sea Pearl (The Quenn of Pearl) from Pincatada maxima obtained from the nature and seeding process. Indonesia South sea Pearl (jewelry).The marketing I loose form is made throught the aucation both in the home country and overseas. With the characteristic of big size and elegance as well as its beauty, Indonesian South Sea Pearl has a uniquenees exceeding other pearls throughout the world. Genarlly speaking, the pearl is used as jewelry material and usually is combined with other jewels such as platinum, gold, silver, brilliant diamond, diamond, and other precious gems. The forms of jewelry produced are among others : crown, necklace, bracelet, ring, wacth, brooch, tie pin, cuff ang so forth. Besides for jewelry a certain type of pearl can be made as cosmetic and medicine mixture material. Many ex cultivated seashells are utilized as art handicraft, shirt buttons, household utensils such as dishes, small spoons, lamp shades, ashtrays, wall ornament, calligraphy, and ornament for wood furniture (chair, table, bed and so forth). The pearl shell flesh can also be utilized as the high nutritious food menu.
Republik Of Indonesia
Ministry Of Marine Affairs And Fisheries