Minggu, 31 Agustus 2008



Copepoda [is] lilliputian prawn faction which often attack exterior fish body and gill. This parasite earn life [in] brine and also freshwater and very [is] difficult controlled. member of Copepoda which non parasite often share to medium inang of worm parasite. Many parasite of Copepoda penetrating fish flesh without can be prevented by treatment of chemistry. This parasite have complicated life cycle.

Argulus Sp .

Argulus Sp. [is] of a kind lilliputian prawn which the including into set of relatives of Argulidae and represent ektoparasit. This organism have circular body form [of] pipih like flea, so that [is] often referred [as] [by] fish flea ( louse fish). Its body [is] provided with appliance able to be used to hook;correlate its body [at] gill and suck food gist;sari.

this Parasite attack generally [do] not generate death [at] fish because he is only sucking its just blood so that fish become thinly. Hurt of[is ex- this sucker appliance represent part of which is [is] easy to be attacked by mushroom or bacterium. infection of Sekunder this can cause death of fish massly.

attacked [by] Fish marking [is] argulus [is] its body seen to become thin even very weak for want of blood. Ex- its attack earn seen redish chromatic, because happened haemorrahage. If happened attack on a large scale, sp makaArgulus. will seen to form colony around gill and fin.

Way of most effective to prevent this parasite attack [is] by [doing/conducting] draining and give pool chalk and also screening of water. While its operation can be [done/conducted] by using salt condensation ( Naci) or salt condensation of ammoniak ( NH 4 CI). That way also with fish input in condensation of bromex 0,1- 0,2 ppm. Fish input in condensation of lindane 0,01- 0,02 ppm have earned to kill Argulus sp. swimming free during 5 [hour/clock], while dose 0,013 proven ppm can kill totally after 48 [hour/clock]. Perendaman in condensation of neguvon 1 gram per litre irrigate during 10-30 effective minute enough to fight against this parasite.

seen from under.

seen the from the top

Picture - 19: Sp Argulus.

Source Of : Ir. Eddy Afrianto and of Ir. Evi Liviawaty, 1993.

Jumat, 29 Agustus 2008



Pros and cons [is] quality of fishery media very is determining [of] storey;level produce fish. Because fish production will mount if its conservancy media [of] production and goodness will be downhill if its bad conservancy media.

Quality of fishery media like water and land;ground will support product increase of fishery if [done/conducted] [by] repair of conducting media quality.

Quality of ugly fishery usually happened [at] effort intensive pattern conducting. Generally intensive conducting use solid [is] high dispersion which followed [by] abundant food to cause heaping of fish dirt and pigswill in fish conducting media.

This condition result downhill water quality and quality, storey;level acidity of water will mount, oxygen rate go down, and heaping of poison gas. If materials of organic which must be elaborated [by] its amount more than amount of decomposition mikroorganisme, will cause decomposition process become to be pursued.

To overcome the the condition many way of [done/conducted]. And one of them [is] in the case of overcoming the problem of decomposition pursued that is by using mikroorganisme of[is non pathogen ( EM4 = Effective Mikroorganisme).

EM4 = Effective Mikroorganisme as inokulan [at] conducting media, EM4 will quicken decomposition of organic materials so that can depress growth of patogen mikroorganisme which is on finally will improve;repair elementary land;ground [of] fishpond.

Kamis, 28 Agustus 2008

Role of fat in processing of fish

Role of fat in processing of fish

1. As Source of aroma
2. Goal feel
3. Colour
4. Emulsion.

Fat Have content

Fat Have content : obstetrical [of] fat
1. Vitamin.
dissolve vitamin in fat [is] : Vitamin : A, D, E , K
2. Pigment
3. Cholesterol
4. Aroma / Goal feel

Fat [At] fish

Fat [at] fish many [at] shares
1. Red flesh
2. Liver ( Shark )
3. Head
4. Peritoneum

Variation [of] Fat influenced
- Migration : transfer activity
- Spawning : breeding activity
- Feeding : activity eat

pursuant to blubber content can be grouped to become
1. Thinly fat < 5 %
2. medium fat 5 - 15 %
3. Big fat > 15%

Type Damage of Protein

Type Damage of Protein

1. Autolisis.
dead fish [of] enzyme of fish body will change the the fish hence fish flesh become to soften

2. Denaturasi.
Changing of it nature of physical of protein. [At] fresh fish flesh initialy hence becoming is stiff. denaturasi resulted from
- Heat
- Cool
- Chemical Iihat vitamin, salt

3. Koagulasi.
furthermore process of denaturasi

4. Change.
Protein altered by microbe become acid of amino hence will happened reek [at] fish

5. Condensation.

Selasa, 26 Agustus 2008

factors of genetic ( Fish chromosome )

factors of Genetic.

When happened forge of spermatozoa with core of egg, happened also association of material coming from two source. Whether egg and or spermatozoa bring the nature of from each mains that is chromosome. Chromosome represent small object, located in core of cell, accountable for evacuation or transmission of[is nature of clan. This chromosome can only seen when happened bisection of cell by mitosis especially at the (time) of metaphase by special coloration. Size measure and that chromosome form differ in different fish species. But that chromosome can be differentiated to become 4 kinds of as follows ( Draw 16 ):

a = Acro(Telo)Centric ( t). chromosome of Telocentric its its[his] that is place area patch yarn when located mitosis near by one of [the] tip of chromosome.

b = Subtelocentric ( st). chromosome of Subtelocentric its [of] nearby him to tip of chromosome, but there are short chromosome arm.

c = Submetacentric ( sm). chromosome of Submetacentric its its[his] located in midst. chromosome. Both [of] its chromosome arm seen unegual but length.

d = Metacentric ( m). chromosome of Metacentric its its[his] with two chromosome arm which [is] of uniform length in the centre of.

Picture 16. Kinds of fish chromosome form ( Kirpichnikov 1981).

According to other writer [of] chromosome of telocentric [is] chromosome which don't have [both/ second] chromosome arm after terminal of centromer, at variance with chromosome which [is] acrocentric have short chromosome arm. Chromosome classification become 4 that form pursuant to comparison of chromosome arm length.

[Do] not all fish have that chromosome form seen together when metaphase. There [is] fish which only having chromosome of acrocentric and of subtelocentric, or in other species only consisting of chromosome of metacentric sub or of metecentric. Very often [at] fish got 2 or 3 kinds of chromosome, despite of also having its it[him] form chromosome. [At] a number of fish of teleost, and so do [at] fish of cucut ray and and also in Acipencerridae and of Amiidae, in its chromosome [is] got " micro-chromosome" which its for small but very quantitative difficult. There [is] also fish having chromosome with its satellite like [at] fish of Salmonidae with form like [at] Picture 17.

Picture 17. Fish chromosome with satellite

Can be paid attention that every pregnant chromosome two form which [is] identik and parallel which named [by] kromatid. Every kromatid consist of one or some flimsy filament which named [by] or kromonemata of genonemata. [At] this kronemata there are one absorbent area [of] more coloration and this area [is] named [by] kromomer. Kromonema represent long double filament, its for diametrical if that cell [is] spliting and if that cell [is] taking a rest or interphase its for tress like spiral. In cell which [is] taking a rest that way that flimsy and long kromonemata fill the core of cell form network which [is] komplek, difficult but seen below/under microscope, only one or two seen nukleoli.
Source : M. Ichsan Effendie, 1997

Senin, 25 Agustus 2008

things influencing chemical composition [at] fish

Fish science a lot of that is : Physical, Chemical, Biology.

Factor influencing fish chemical composition

1. Intra and species inter
2. Way of living or way of eating
3. different Ground Fishing
4. Time or arrest season
5. Livelines of fish
6. Gender.

excellence and weakness of fish

excellence and weakness of fish to result of fishery product.

Excellence of fish [is]

1. value of Biologis 90%.
value of biologis 90% its meaning if/when eating 1 fish singk hence 90 gram [in] our body, and 10 castaway gram.
15% fish flesh fully contain protein.
10% protein from besides fish flesh

2. Met many.
fishery potency more or less 6,5 million ton / th [in] indonesia

3. Its cheap price

4. Accepted many.

weakness of fish [is]

1. high Water rate.
Fish have high water rate, hence easy to happened decomposition process till decay, easy to live mikroorganisme as decomposition of deterioration

2. pH come near neutrally.
fish pH generally 6,5 - 6,7. if/when low pH hence deterioration microbe cannot live

3. Fastener jacquards a few/little

4. oxidized Easy fat. Omega fat 3 and omega 9 representing fat is not saturated [is] easy to oxidized, so that emerge rancid aroma.

type of aerator

type of aerator

a. Gravity Aerator ( Influence of gravity ).
principal : dropping water so that happened contact irrigate with air which is more.

kinds of :
1. Weir with splash board
2. Weir with paddle wheel
3. Weir with rotating board
4. Weir with inclined plane without hole
5. Weir with inclined plane with hole
6. Lattice aerator
7. Riser with perporated aprous

b. Surface Aerator ( Surface ).
Principal : mixing water which have there [is] in pool by transmitting into the air or make its surface become wide [of] is ( surging)

c. Diffusier Aerator ( mixing ).
Principle : mixing air have oxygen [to] in water so that the more water which mixed with air

d. Turbine Aerator ( paddle wheel)

e. Combination 2 or more a until d.

Principle of Aerasi Water

Principle of Aerasi Water.
Principal [of] aerasi [at] fishpond [is] to
1. extending surface areal which [is] contact with air
2. Mix [of] water with other materials or air so that water which [is] have low oxygen [to] [of] contact with air or oxygen
3. Mixing water which [is] have high oxygen [to] with water which [is] have low oxygen [to]
4. Water Sirkulasi
5. Air as source of highest oxygen [in] nature.

Minggu, 24 Agustus 2008

base and usefulness of technology result of fishery

Technological Base result of fishery. elementary definition [of] technology result of fishery : passed to treatment result of fishery as a mean to lengthen energy keep.
Usefulness of Technology result of fishery
1. Preventing degradation of quality result of fishery
2. Preventing poisoned
3. Supply of food
4. extending distribution
5. Source of production
6. Improving economic value.

Benefit Plankton [at] fishpond

Benefit Plankton [at] fishpond

1. Vegetation plankton as oxygen producer [in] territorial water

2. absorbent Vegetation plankton [of] dangerous compound to prawn ( ammonia ), directly and also indirectly

3. special natural food [at] fry dispersion

4. depressing growth of moss [in] fishpond base.

Role of [gift/ giving] of chalk [at] plankton

Role of [gift/ giving] of chalk [at] plankton
- [gift/ giving] of chalk [at] fishpond suggested at night so that carbonate element will increase, meaning ability fasten CO2 in ever greater water, so that more and more ion OH- discharged to water will cause increase of and pH of CO2 re

-formed. [at] the reaction can be used for the activity of plankton photosynthesis [at] morning , thereby existence of plankton in water can be defended is continuous.

System management of fish conducting

System management of fish conducting need, conducting step : fish conducting step among that is
1. Preparation of pool
2. fertilization and [gift/ giving] of chalk [at] pool land
3. Draining of pool
4. Admission Filling Of Water
5. Fertilization of Water
6. Plant Plankton
7. Addition of plankton
8. Seed Aklimasi
9. Dispersion Seed
10. Management of food
11. Management of Quality water.

spawn group pursuant to amount of its egg yolk

spawn group pursuant to amount of its egg yolk.

pregnant Egg [of] slimmest egg yolk [of] its amount. Fish example [of] having egg that way [is] Amphioxus.

Egg of Telolecithal pregnant a number of egg yolk too many for one egg of oligolecithal. Fish having egg of telolecithal many there are [in] area which [is] have season [to] four, for example [at] fish of Sturgeon,

Egg having egg yolk relative many with cytoplasms keping [in] part of its pole [of] him. egg kinds of this many there are [at] most fish.

source of M. Effendie,1997 ichsan.

make-up of the effort fishery conducting

make-up of the effort fishery conducting can be [done/conducted] [by] if/when
1. The available of well guaranted fish seed [is] its levying
2. Make-Up of productivity [pass/through] fertilization method and method [gift/ giving] of food made in
3. Make-Up of pre-eminent fish mains utilize importance of fish seed effort
4. Repair of mechanism arrange conducting unit water

Engineering Fishery of Conducting

Engineering Fishery of Conducting
- management of conducting effort
1. Certifiable Seed
2. Pre-Eminent Mains.

Target of Conducting fishery in fishery economic activity :
Target of Conducting fishery Basically [is] ready [of] fish stok by kontinue remember product yielded [at] arrest of fish cannot fulfill requirement of continuous market. hereinafter on the other side [at] effort arrest of fish, depended
1. Fish season
2. Factor Weather
3. What overflows Fish
4. high capital enough.

if/when compared to the effort capital factor conducting [do] not equal to effort arrest, product sock can be laboured by creating the effort seeding, conservancy of seed, and magnification which is on [is] finally obtained [by] consumption size measure fish to be distributed to market.

Sabtu, 23 Agustus 2008

Kinds of spawn.

Kinds of spawn.

Research to fish larva and egg [in] free nature in Indonesia not yet [done/conducted] many, again, [do] not as in some neighbouring state. Delsman ( 1921 - 1938) representing first person [doing/conducting] research exhaustively to fish larva and egg of pelagis [in] Java Sea. But still limited to some just species that is some of important economic fishs which there are [in] Java Sea. Still many other species [of] bream goodness and also sea fish in Indonesia which not yet been checked. Egg and fish larva which [is] conducting have checked many by [all] student but generally not yet been publicized. Some kinds of egg of pelagis larva and [in] Java Sea got by Delsman like [at] Picture 13.

Picture 13. Kinds of spawn of pelagis of Java Sea and Malacca Strait ( Delsman, 1929) Picture boldness

1. Chirocentrus Dorab
3. Clupea Fimbriata
4. Stelophorus Heterolobus
5. Engraulis Kammalensis
6. Stolephorus Indicus
7. Trichiurus Sp
8. Muraena Sp
9. Decapterus ( Caranx) Kurra
10. Hemirhampus Spec .
11. Caranx Macrosoma
12. Dorosoma Chacunda
13. Chanos Chanos
14. Pellona Sp.
15. Cybium Maculatum
16. Echeneis Naucrates
17. Saurida Tumbil
18. Harpodon Nehereus
19. Tetrodon Sp .
21. Fistularia Serrata

Research of fish larva and egg of pelagis in Indonesia require to pay attention many factor playing a part. Most pattern breeder of fishs in Indonesia still not yet been known, big therefore its possibility in [is] during the year got [by] fish which [is] berpijah. Thereby hence will be got [by] kinds of fish larva and egg jumbling in growth storey;level which different each other. [Do] not all spawn have [is] same form, but there [is] egg having size measure and form which much the same to like [at] species which in one gender or which nearby just small distinguishment base on its species. Source M. Ichsan Effendie, 1997.

Jumat, 22 Agustus 2008



Attention to processs which there are in growth early fish life represent piquancy because relating to the fish population stability in a[n territorial water. Mortalitas in the early growth of fish life generally very big where fluctuation of mortalitas have big share in determining variation [of] produce [at] annually. However this matter still need digs of furthermore research to be developed [by] its benefit. More to fishs species of tropik, a lot of which not yet been laid open.

Spawn with its sharess. Vertebrate egg, pursuant to to amount of deutoplasma ( egg yolk, etcetera) which there are in cytoplasma, can be divided [by] two ( Nelsen, 1953

a. egg of Homolecithal ( isolecithal).
this Egg faction only there are [at] mammalia. Amount of scanty deutoplasma especially in the form of fat items and biggest egg yolk in cytoplasma.

b. egg of Telolecithal.
In egg of this faction there are a number of egg yolk gathering [at] one of [the] its pole. fish of Ganoid have egg which kinds of him [is] equal to kinds of egg of amphibia which [do] not have foot/feet ( Gymnophiona) where amount of its egg yolk relative many and gather [at] one of [the] its pole. Romer ( 1955) naming egg faction that way by the name of mesolecithal. Egg [at] fish of Teleostei and Elasmobranchia its it massif. Protoplasm of this egg later will participate [at] some first bisection, its amount a few/little. Egg yolk [do] not partake in bisection processs, while growth of [its] embryo limited to cytoplasma found on pole of anima.

spawn of Ovipar which not yet fruit ( Picture 11), its exterior [is] arranged in layers by named [by] membrane [is] capsule membrane or of chorion. Below/Under chorion.terdapat again named [by] second membrane [of] membrane of vitelline. third membrane encircle egg plasma and the membrane named [by] plasma membrane. Third [of] all these membrane [of] him patch one another and [do] not there are room among others. Part of egg which there are cytoplasma usually gather [in] side upper egg which named [by] pole of anima. Undercarriage [of] him that is [at] adversative pole there are a lot of egg yolk. Polar this named [by] pole of vegetatif. In fact egg yolk [at] this fish almost fill entire/all volume of cell. Egg yolk exist in middle shares [of] its situation more condensed than egg yolk exist in part of periphery caused by cytoplasma. Beside that cytoplasma many there are [at] around core of egg. [At] chorion there are a micropyle that is a[n its pullin puncture [of] sperma into egg when happened impregnation.

( Picture 11),

If new egg [of] exit of mains body and come into contact with water there [is] two matter to happened is. First [of] membrane of chorion will escape with membrane of vitelline and form room. This room [is] named [by] room of perivitelline ( Picture 12). Entry of water into egg because of difference of pressure of osmose and of imbibisi protein found on surface of egg yolk. membrane of Vitelline represent barrier entry of water don't seep into egg.
( picture 12 )
Second process [is] ossification of membrane of chorion. needed to time ossification of membrane of chorion unegual base on ion of calsium which there are in water. According to Hoar ( 1957) egg which [is] incubated in pregnant water [of] chlorida calsium 0,0001 M, its membrane [of] him will be more ossify from [at] incubated egg [in] water refine. Ossification of this chorion will prevent the happening of impregnation of polyspermi. With existence of room of perivitelline below/under hard chorion, hence egg can make a move more free during its growth. Influence waving to position of embryo which [is] expanding very tereduksi caused by room of perivitelline that.

Impregnation In course of impregnation, spermatozoa come into egg [pass/through] hole of micropyle found on chorion. Every spermatozoa have [is] same opportunity for fruit one egg. However because place room the happening of impregnation that is meeting of egg with spermatozoa [at] fish of ovipar very big, hence opportunity of that spermatozoa to come in contact with egg in fact very small. To overcome [the] mentioned [so that/ to be] success impregnation, spermatozoa the [released] [by] its amount very [is] big compared to the amount of egg to fruit. optimum in a condition fish spermatozoa which is just [released] from body have strength to make a move in water during 1 - 2 minute.

Pursuant to to research which have been [done/conducted] by Hartman as well as by Motalenti ( Hoar, 1957), and egg of sperma which is just [released] from mains body, [releasing] chemical Iihat vitamin which useful in impregnation process. According to most literature of America, Iihat vitamin [released] by and egg of sperma named [by] Gamone. Gamone coming from egg [is] Gynamone I and of Gynamone II. Gamone coming from spermatozoa [is] Androgamone I and of Androgamone II. functioning Gynamone I to quicken to movement and draw spermatozoa of [is] same species by chemotaksis. functioning Gynamone II to collect and arrest;detain spermatozoa [at] surface of egg. Function of Androgamone I [is] to depress spermatozoa aktifitas when still stay in masculine fish genital channel. While functioning Androgamone II to make surface of charion become flabby as against from function of Gynamone II.

Relatively egg coat which have in water [is] ossifying and cannot be penetrated by spermatozoa except passing micropyle which its for like funnel. big Funnel hole located in small hole and exterior [in] interior. That hole that way the so small so that not possible (to) earn to be passed by by sperma more than one in one time. When spermatozoa come into funnel hole, that represent cork to the other and after head of spermatozoa that enter, shares its tail escape. Thereby impregnation [at] fish generally monosperma where if have entered one spermatozoa will quickly happened change [at] part of micropyle.

Even so happened impregnation of polyspermi, only one molten spermatozoa consist with the core of egg. While the other sipped by egg upon which its food. Momentary after happened impregnation, egg content rather a little a few/little because breaking of cavity of alveoli which there are in egg. With occurence [of] cavity of perivitelline more big so that fruit egg which have can perform [a] movement of giration during its growth hatch.

source : M. Ichsan Effendie, 1997

Selasa, 19 Agustus 2008

Fish of Pelagophils

Fish of Pelagophils. Prolific [in] open or free territorial water where egg result of breeder of [it] will float, go down downwards or climb of surface. [The] mentioned base on to specific gravity spawn determined by oil item content in egg and habit of place marry. Sea fishs a lot is the including into this fish faction. After marrying this fishs take no account of its clan will and all egg left [by] [in] area pembiakan [it]. Even though that fish have [done/conducted] the effort where behaviour when breeder of [it] aim to [so that/ to be] all the [releasing] egg earn fruit. fishs of phytophils, lithophils, and psamophils of pelagophils which have been told above [is] fish which [do] not take care of its clan or take no account of its childs. But there [is] also fish of ovipar paying attention its clan [of] goodness by making den before [doing/conducting] marriage, and there [is] also paying attention its clan after happened marriage, that is with menyimpan or protect its clan [at] certain places like [at] masculine fish body, female or [at] other place. Fish group performing [a] protection to its clan this generally have compared to small fecundity [of] fish of ovipar which [do] not [do/conduct] protection. ovipar fish making den and also pay attention its clan [is] a lot [do] not leave its den. Mentioned den there [is] representing circle, there [is] representing underside of or stone of obyek other and there [is] also representing hole in land;ground. There [is] also made den of adrift spume on the surface of and taken care of by fish mains around it. fish protecting its clan by other [is] by putting down egg to part of masculine fish body or female fish. fish placing fruit egg which have in mouth there are [at] fish of mujair ( Oreochromis_Spp.) and some fish species which including fish group of catfish for example [at] fish of Arius sagor. And so do [at] pipe fish placing its childs [at] part of its body. source M. Ichsan Effendie, 1997.

Senin, 18 Agustus 2008

Lobster Freshwater

Lobster Freshwater.

Differ from prawn pole, lobster can be marketed [by] goodness as prawn consume and also as aquarium decoration. That is why prospect of lobster much more [is] open compared to other prawn commodity. This Lobster in a short time become primadona because amendable [in] basin bargain.

Recognition of Type. Lobster [is] generally arrested from coast. Coastal fisherman Baron [is], Yogyakarta with dinghy swim and catch lobster among rocks, [is] later;then sold [by] [in] coast or sent to buyer. Nowadays, freshwater lobster can be developed [by] [in] lawn pool, [is] same as other bream commodity. Freshwater Lobster ( Cherax Sp.) [is] one of [the] pertained gender [is] crustacea ( prawn nation) which entire/all cycling its life happened [in] freshwater. its big Body size measure naturally. Its body consist of two shares, that is head ( body and cephalotorax) ( abdomen). There [is] part of [among/between] him that is subcephalotorax. Entire/All its body [is] blanketed with cangkang of[is known as carapace which [is] Iihat vitamin berbahan gore with horn or kitin.

Chosen Mains of lobster.
Chosening mains of lobster supposing chosen human being which will marry will sit side by side [in] decorative weding-bed. Each have to mature egg and may not wrong to determine its gender. May not both male or both is female. As for its characteristics as follows. Mains characteristic which with quality is.

- Existence of located circular hole which located in third foot/feet base
- nip femalely [is] level of [is] same or only 1,5 times first internode
- compared to Darker colour [of] its couple
- Age 6-8 months
- Heavy reach 30
- Length 18 - 20 cm.

- Owning gibbosity [in] fifth road;street foot/feet handle base
- male have to nip which level of 2-3 times first internode
- Colour more fair
- Old age 6-8 months
- Heavy 30
- Length 18-20 cm.

Fish and Habitat breeding

Fish and Habitat breeding. Pursuant to to kinds of used [by] habitat [is] fish when breeding, we earn to classify the the fish become some faction like following: Fish of Phytophils [is] prolific fish faction [it] [at] territorial water which there are vegetasi to paste up [released] egg. such territorial water usually stagnan or [his/its] small stream.

In fact the condition of such territorial water if seen from dissolve oxygen facet, hence its situation all kinds of that is strarting from territorial water which [is] oxygen insuffiency will be mentioned so that which [is] its rate. enough. However plant exist in in the territorial water presumably represent a[n needed to condition taking place breeder [him/ it]. Fish which including into fish faction of phytophils for example Esox Lucius, Perca Sp., Notemigonus Crysoleucas, some fish which including into Set of relatives of Labridae and of Cyprinidae. In Indonesia which have famous as conducting fish and including into fish of phytophils [is] goldfish ( Cyprinus Carpio). Way of goldfish breeding which have been done by [all] farmer of fish in Indonesia as according to this fish nature, that is using fibre of palmtree carpet nipped by bamboo to paste up egg in the place of grass if prolific [in] free nature. Goldfish which [is] conducting earn breeding [at] more young age, less than one year, from [at].

goldfish which there are [in] free nature. [In] area have season [to] four goldfish start prolific for the first time when old age two year as breeding early summer. Fish of Lithopils [is] fish which [is] [him/ it] breeding need rocky territorial water base. Place like that [his/its] rocky elementary river, lake of oligotropik seashore or, rocky. Situation of such place usually have dissolve oxygen content which last for need of its childs later. Fish which including into this faction for example [is] Salmo sp. ( salmon), Salvelinus sp. ( trout), Coregonus sp. ( cisco), Catostomus sp. ( sucker), Stizostedion ( walleyes), etcetera. this Faction fish egg which usually [him/ it] breeding [in] river have big size measure relative than prolific spawns [in] free territorial water. Its moustache [of] spawn of salmon and of trout have many supply of food which good for new fish hatch during brought, current where [in] that area lacking of food. For prolific fishs in territorial water under colour of sandy him, Et al Lagler - ( 1962) classifying [it] together with fish of litophils. While Nikolsky ( 1963) classifying into separate faction which named [by] fish of psamophils. This fish biak [it] in [his/its] elementary territorial water sand or sometime that [released] egg [it] there [is] which patch [in] crop root. this Faction fish egg which put down [by] above sand a lot prepacked by sand. Even though egg which have been wrapped mentioned there [is] in a condition beneficial territorial water for the respiration of. this Faction fish example [of] [is] Pseudogobio ribularis and Deuterophysa. Also fish of grunion ( Leuresthes Tenuis ) which there are [in] prolific California [it] above sandy coast when high tide that happened one month two. times. Egg result of breeder closed by sand and juiceless after ebb. when next tide [of] mentioned egg will irrigate and hatch, later;then its fish children will brought to [is] ing high water.
Source of M. Ichsan Effendie, 1997.

Minggu, 17 Agustus 2008

Breeding of Nilem carp

fish of Nilem carp [is] usually cooked [by] pepes because its size measure [do] not too big. This fish can be sold in economic package. A. Recognition of Type. Form Body fish of Nilem carp ( Osteochilus Hasselti ) almost similar to goldfish. The difference, fish head of Nilem smaller carp relative. [At] its mouth angle;corners, there are two feeler;complaint tide of peraba. its Body colour [of] grey green.

Back fin have 3 hard radius and 12-18 soft radius. Fin go with the tide in form of branch and is symmetrical. Anus fin contributed by 3 hard radius and 5 soft radius. Stomach fin contributed by 1 hard radius and 8 soft radius. Chest fin consist of 1 hard radius and 13-15 soft radius. Amount of sisik [at] side line there [is] 33-36 keping. Near by angle;corner trap to the there [is] 2 sensuous feeler;complaint tide. fish of Nilem carp. can reach body length 32 cm. [In] West Java, fish of nilem have popularitas a little below goldfish. [In] various other area, this fish [is] known as [by] fish of lehat, regis, monto, palong, palouw, pawas, assang, or penopa.

This fish there are [in] Java, Sumatra and of Kalimantan, Malaysia, and Thailand. In general, fish of nilem carp. can be looked after [at] area with height [about/around] 150-800 dpl m. B. Habit of Life [in] Nature. Nilem Carp. live [in] clear environment. Therefore, this fish can be found [by] [in] rivers 1. Habit eat. Nilem pertained fish eater of flora ( herbivore 2. Habit multiply. Usually, this fish [of] breeding will [in] is final [of] rain season, [in] sandy area and have water clearly. In place energy kindness, fish of nilem can be breeded during the year by arranging the condition of environment.

C. Chosen Mains.
Fish of Nilem carp of[is including productive fish because can be breeded [by] 3-4 times in one year. Efficacy of breeder very determined [at] mains factor and arrangement of environment of temapt prolific. For that, election of fish mains of nilem which [is] breeding will have to fulfill the following conditions. Mains characteristic which with quality is.

Its Age reach 1-1,5 year. Heavy [of] body [about/around] 100 g. If/When massaged slowly up at genital appliance hole, female mains will [release] yellowish chromatic dilution.

Its stomach [of] flower and felt soft when groped. Old age 8 Heavy months [of] body [about/around] 100 g. If/When squeezed [by] stomach up at genital appliance, masculine mains will [release] milky dilution.

D. breeding [in] Pool.

For the breeding of fish [in] pool, require to draw up pool construction, preparation of pool, and breeder process 1. Pool construction. Pool breeder of fish of nilem fairish carp 2 m2 which incircuit with hatch pool for the width of 20 M2. Pool Breeder also incircuit with pool conservancy of seed. Apart water level with door inclusion of water [about/around] 15 cm.

2. Preparation of pool.
Depth of water [in] pool for the stepping of carp nilem. 50 cm. Whereas pool hatch of egg exist in under him filled [by] water in 30-40 cm. Elementary [of] hatch pool have to sand and free from mud in order not to bother process hatch of egg. Among both the pool attached [by] filter [so that/ to be] mains of nilem carp. [do] not drift to hatch pool. Some farmer install stoney and plant grass of kakawatan ( Dactylon Cynodon) to hinder to get away mains him to hatch pool, but [do] not hinder water bringing egg to hatch pool. As for water debit which come into pool enlarged to stimulate marriage of mains of nilem.

3. breeding.
Fish dissociated ( to be fasted ) beforehand during 3-7 day to throw away dirt from within its stomach. Pemberokan better be [done/conducted] in separate pool in order not to happened marriage which [do] not be expected or ` marry thief'. If/When preparation of pool to marry and hatch pool have hence 20 input mains tide into breeder pool. Labouring pemasukkan of mains [done/conducted] in the evening because nilem take a fancy to nocturnal breeding.

Before at dawn, usually carp nilem. will marry. This fish will marry [in] part of skin-deep of[is near by pipe dismissal of water. [released] eggs, then fruit. The egg later;then will drift brought water and come into hatch pool. Afterwards, mainss morning after arrested and returned to pool conservancy of each mains.

E. Hatch of Egg and Treatment of Seed.
cumulative Egg at elbow door inclusion of hatch pool smoothed down with rib broom nor harrow. If/When let to heap, will many egg which [do] not hatch. Hatch pool better give [by] banana daundaun to lessen sunshine intensity which enter and or rainwater. Five day later;then seed of nilem can be harvested to be sold, disperse to rice field, or looked after [by] [in] pool of pendederan. Way of its arrest with accomodating fish [in] attached [by] dismissal channel [is] smooth cloth, then removing [him/ it] step by step to hapa which have been attached by using pail. yielded seed from a couple of fairish nilem 100-150 g counted 15-000-30.000 tail.

F. Conservancy of Magnification and seed.
If/When seed will be looked after into pool conservancy of seed, hence flood gate which incircuit with pool conservancy of seed opened. Thereby, seed of nilem carp. will make a move to pool conservancy of broader seed. Magnification of fish of nilem carp. can be [done/conducted] [by] [in] pool and or keramba. fish of Nilem carp. enlarged may not [is] altogether consumed or sold. Some of enlarged fish have to be utilized for the rejuvenation of mains because mains of nilem carp. [is] usually assumed [by] have unproductive again after 2 year or [about/around] 6-8 times have been married.
Source of : Heru Susanto, 2005.

Fish species of ovovivipar

Fish species of ovovivipar its amount much more many from [at] fish of vivipar. [At] fish of ovovivipar, growth of child in mains content get food of supply of available egg yolk and [at] this faction [of] its situation [is] non plasental. But [at] faction of Elasmobranchia which [is] vivipar according to Hoar ( 1969) there are also which [is] its situation [is] non plasental apart from ordinary have placenta. Matter that way [at] fish faction of Elasmobranchia represent complete example [of] [of] food contribution of mains to its clan start from situation which [there] no [gift/ giving] of food of mains until to its for which [is] komplek. Egg [at] fish of ovovivipar pregnant [of] organic material 20 - 40% too many for one borne fish children. Probably because this matter [of] mains only giving just protection to growth of mentioned egg.

But there [is] also fish of ovovivipar having egg where organic material content [of] him a few/little. For its mentioned growth [of] fry get need of material for its growth from mains although without passing organ a kind of placenta but passing a kind of absorbtion of Iihat vitamins [released] by uterus. named mentioned Food vitamin " milk of uterin" or also embryotrophe. [At] fish embryo of Squalus acanthias there are two kinds of egg yolk poke that is poke which outside poke and body in body. Poke egg yolk in that body as result of growth of exterior egg yolk poke bar which grow [in] interior. Items egg yolk of external poke make a move to part of poke which in continuing to intestine to be digested. [At] Torpedo fish, its embryo besides taking organic material of egg poke which later;then continue to be digested by intestine, also this embryo earn milk of uterin [pass/through] and mouth of spiracle-nya where mentioned Iihat vitamins will be digested in stomach.

Source M. Ichsan Effendie, 1997.

Fish of Mustelus canis and Sphyrna tiburo in fact fish of vivipar......

Fish of Mustelus canis and Sphyrna tiburo in fact fish of vivipar, but [at] start of growth of [his/its] egg for a few month;moon like fish of ovovivipar. Its egg which containing many egg yolk represent food for the growth of mentioned embryo before formed [his/its] [of] placenta. Every egg form external network of egg yolk so that finally like staying in separate room. Later;Then from uterus also grow network which finally will [is] braiding each other with network coming from egg [is] so that formed [by] a kind of placenta. Bar egg yolk will patch [at] a kind of mentioned placenta, where embryo later;then will accept its food from mains. A period of/to containing fish faction of Elasmobranchia unegual ovovivipar. Fish of Myliobastis bovine a period of/to containing four months [it], Trygon Violacea two months , three-month Urolophus Halleri and Squalus acanthias two months . Fish of Mustelus canis which [is] pregnant vivipar during ten months. Differ from fish faction of vivipar and of ovovivipar, fish make of ovipar representing majority of fish exist in its egg fruit breeding time outside body. [released] egg of fruit mains body by masculine fish by is assorted [is] way of. All behaviour [done/conducted] by the fish when breeding aim to [so that/ to be] all [released] [to] egg earn fruit better. fishs of Ovipar there [is] also paying attention its clan [of] goodness by making den for this or by putting and protecting its clan [at] certain place place [at] female or masculine mains body or [at] other place. Fish faction of ovipar such usually have small fecundity. On the contrary heedless fish [is] its clan generally have big fecundity, but its it[him] big also. Most fish of ovipar have time of marry certain which [done/conducted] per annum regularly. [In] area have season [to] four, [at] every its season there [is] fishs of ovipar which marry, each [doing/conducting] [him/ it] once one year. Fish faction which marry in spring will remarry [at] next yrs. [in] [is] same season. That way also fishs which marry [at] other season. Source M. Ichsan Effendie, 1997.

Result of internal fertilisasi [of] fish of vivipar .............

Result of internal fertilisasi [of] fish of vivipar when its child [is] borne [is] fishs individual which have almost perfect like mains fish and to early life in territorial water [shall] no longger base on mains but to effort alone. Equally its mains [shall] no longger ' give provisions to its child after that child [is] borne. fry of Vivipar when in mains content get food and [release] its dirt [pass/through] a kind of placenta which have a lot or vili of trophonemata and equiped by capillary vein.

Other the things of with mammal faction, fish of vivipar a period of/to containing [him/ it] can change. Because that fish [of] poikilothermal, hence if territorial water temperature progressively increase from usually, a period of/to that fish content can become short progressively, or on the contrary. While fry able to be contained by its mains pursuant to to is big [of] its mains. Ever greater [of] mains more and more fry able to contain of. However [at] fish of vivipar able to contain child a lot of, usually borne children [it] [do] not fully like mains but in the form of larva.

source : M. Ichsan Effendie, 1997

Process Breeder of Fish.

Process Breeder of Fish.

[At] fish of Set of relatives of Scorpaenidae which [is] ovovivipar have been found [by] many sperma which patch [at] coat of epitel follicle which enter, but that sperma have never been got in follicle. Impregnation [at] this fish faction the happening of after kopulasi that is by sperma which have [in] in female fish body. [At] some Set of relatives fish of Embiotocidae after happened sperma kopulasi which come into female fish body if egg fruit [do] not admit of six-month life until later;then. This Sperma [of] egg fruit which will still reside in in follicle. Fruit egg which have when coming into ovary have reached segmentation phase early and reside in situ during 10 - 12 months so that reach furthermore growth phase.

[At] fish faction of Elasmobrancia female, ovari and its [of] him [do] not all installing. For example [at] fish of Urolophus halleri, and ovari of oviduct its starboard dwindle and [do] not function. Trygon bleekeri lkan don't have and ovari of oviduct which right side. But' [at] fish faction of cucut there are marking that and ovari of oviduct left side [do] not function.

[At] fish of Urolophus halleri after happened ovulasi, its egg make a move to frontage that is about [in] area of oesophagus and later;then come into funnel of oviduct. Place the happening of impregnation of this egg [is] in place oviduct which usually [release] gland for the eggshell of. female fish [of] it can keep sperma in its it[him] three-month until after the happening of kopulasi. Mentioned Sperma indirectly egg fruit. Impregnation of mentioned egg [done/conducted] by sperma which have been kept. Become kopulasi here act as delivery of just sperma to female fish.

source : M. Ichsan Effendie, 1997

Vivipar yolk egg have of spawn....................

Vivipar yolk egg have of spawn [ is] which [ is] and reduced very [ at] life child early growth, mains of food get body mains in. Ovovivipar yolk egg more have of spawn, body mains its in staying when food child its for good which, acre there case this in where of some ace only mains mentioned from of just protector. While [ at] its egg ovipar of fish also body fish outside life its cycling early fry for good which yolk egg many containing.

breeding [at] faction of vivipar or of ovovivipar [do] not [is] forever followed by impregnation and growth of result association of egg with sperma in female mains body. To succeeding impregnation [him/ it] [at] this fish faction, like have been told that this fish have instrumentality that is part of anus fin which have metamorphosed genital or [him/it] of pabilla big which named " pseudopenis". But on the contrary [at] fish of Apogonimberis its its[his] urogenital [at] fish can be signalized and touched to accept sperma of masculine fish. [At] fish of Orthonopias its tiacis [of] him can be signalized to accept sperma when taking place [him/ it] of copulasi.

Source : M. Ichsan Effendie, 1997

Sabtu, 16 Agustus 2008

Breeding fish

Breeding .

breeding as one part of the reproduction represent cycle link [of] life determining the continuity of species life. Addition of fish population base on succeeding this breeding [him/ it] as well as base on the condition of where fish larva and egg later expand. Therefore in fact breeder claim a[n certainty for the security [of] continuity of its clan life by chosening place, beneficial condition and time. Pursuant to this matter [of] breeder every fish species have different habit depended to that breeder habitat to pass off its process. Under normal circumstances fish pass off breeding of minimum once in one cycling its life such as those which there are [at] fish of salmon and of sidat. After [doing/conducting] breeder, fish mains [of] death because running out of of energy.

Most of all fish pembiakan [him/it] pursuant to sexual reproduction that is the happening of association of cell produce sexual organ which in the form of egg of female fish and spermatozoa of masculine fish. Of [both/ second] association kinds of the cell will be formed [by] new individual to add the level of population. [both/ second] Association kinds of cell of sex mentioned there [is] that happened in body ( impregnation in or internal fertilisasi) and there [is] also that happened outside body ( eksternal fertilisasi).

Fish performing [a] internal fertilisasi have supply of body to ascertain to succeeding- [him/ it] of fertilisasi mentioned with special organ ( organ copulatory) for this. The organ usually there are [at] just masculine fish, like clasper [at] fish faction of Elasmobranchia, pterygopod [at] ray fish faction ( still Elasmobranchia), gonopodium [at] Set of relatives of Poeciliidae and some other species. Fish of Elasmobranchia in general [do/conduct] internal fertilisasi, while fish of teleost which have been known to [do/conduct] this matter [is] Set Of Relatives of Poeciliidae, Goodidae, Yeninsiidae and of Anablepidae.

Source : M. Ichsan Effendie, 1997

vivipar, and ovovivipar of ovipar

vivipar, and ovovivipar of ovipar.

Referring to breeder, recognized [by] there [is] three kinds of fish that is vivipar, and ovovivipar of ovipar. fish of Vivipar and of ovovivipar [is] fish producing children him while fish of ovivar [is] fish [releasing] egg when happened breeding. Difference [among/between] fish of vivipar with fish of ovovivipar lay in growth of contained egg and situation of its childs when borne.

fish of Vivipar and of ovovivipar usually small berfecundity and its clan get a kind of confidence or guarantee of mains to be able to pass off early hidupya safely. While [at] fish of ovipar usually big berfekunditas or amount of big [released] egg [it] caused to make balance to situation pressure around from atypical matter especially from attack of predator. This matter indicate that fish of vivipar and of ovovivipar more modern than fish of ovipar in maintaining species eksistensi. In course of its its[his] that is when happened breeding, fish of ovipar more [releasing] energi from [at] fish of vivipar and of ovovivipar.

Source : M. Ichsan Effendie, 1997

Fecundity and population

Fecundity and population.

Bagenal ( 1978) telling that beside absolute fecundity there [is] also population fecundity that is amount of all egg from all absolute fecundity [of] female fish to be prolific, that is all egg which to be [released] in one season of breeding. In this [relation/link] [of] specific age fecundity ( fecundity specific age) representing component of fecundity population. If/When known [by] structure old age from the population and amount of each its member [is] known, hence population fecundity can know.

[At] per annum unegual population fecundity. this Causes variation [of] relate to age composition, environmental factor like supply of food, density of population, territorial water temperature, dissolve oxygen, and others. Fishs which [is] life [at] less fertile territorial water [of] its egg production lower. Attempt with [gift/ giving] of rabon [at] fish of salmon, Scott in Bagenal ( 1978) getting that reduction of food cause reduction of its egg amount and [at] fish of stickleback, reduction of food result international of membikan become shorter but its egg size measure [do] not have an effect on. Water temperature influence fecundity indirectly. So also depth of water and dissolve oxygen [do] not represent resistor factor to fecundity. Environmental in a condition yang-menguntungkan egg [released] too many for one unfavourable in a condition.

According to Nikolsky ( 1969), for certain species, [at] age which different each other show fecundity which vary referring to supply of annual food. This influence happened also for [is] same fairish individual and earn also for population as a whole. Some of mentioned influence influence egg and supply of egg. Thereby clear now that fecundity [at] certain fairish fish or certain group [of] its big variation [of]. If one population in a few its amount year become very decreasing effect of arrest ( mortalitas) for example, matter this means will improve;repair supply of food for population of[is rest of. In the reality from its mentioned remains population it[him] progressively increase, while when complete still mentioned population or its big amount, its [of] small him.

A marked difference [at] fecundity from a[n generation happened also [at] [is] same fish [of] its size measure but having different fat content. Fish or fattest individual have fecundity relative or higher level absolute than thin fish. Usually fattest old fish than young fish. Also population fecundity can differ from year to year caused by fishs which [is] breeding [do] not [at] annually or him [him/ it] after some year.

new River fish become dweller of reservoiar which is just made, which [is] supply of food [at] first yrs. usually causing, many that fish quickly cook gonad [at] young and there are accretion of good fecundity [of] fecundity relative and also is absolute. But this matter [is] later;then followed by amount of prolific become to decrease so that the amount of entire/all egg [released] by fish individual become to decrease also.

Beside that fishs which [is] life [in] its river [of] him have [relation/link] highly water. If certain yrs. until high water level always, its [of] high him also, in comparison with other year which [is] its water level lower. Possible [is] same occurence earn happened also for fishs which [is] life [in] bog, because often water level of unegual bog from year to year effect of inclusion of erratic water.

Factors influencing fecundity and also miscellaneous related to that, Nikolsky ( 1969) making especial method as follows

1. Until certain age [of] that fecundity will increase downhill later;then again, fecundity relative downhill him before happened degradation of absolute fecundity [of] him. fecundity relative maximum happened [at] young fish faction. Old fishs sometime breeding [do] not every year. Individual which grow and cook quicker have dead mainstream in advance.

2. absolute fecundity or relative often become small [at] age class or fishs which [is] its amount happened, many for species having difference of food among size measure group

3. Arrangement of fecundity many in berespon to supply of food relate to egg yielded by fish which quickly its growth, fattest [of] bigger clan. Its mechanism relate to ripening of oosit and suction of egg. Increase, population fecundity earn because of maturity of gonad earlier of individual which grow quickerly.

4. Fish which its for small ripely earlier gonad and also its [of] high him possible because of food content and of predator in gross.

5. Difference of fecundity among species population which [is] life [at] condition of environment which different each other, form its migran [of] bigger him 6. fecundity accomodated automatically [pass/through] metabolism performing [a] reaction of to change of supply of food and yield the change in growth, like size measure [at] certain age and so do size measure and egg amount or inbreeding cycle amount one year.

7. Fecundity increase in performing [a] respon to repair of food [pass/through] maturity of gonad earlier that happened, adding individual maturity [at] fattest individual and lessen [among/between] breeder cycle

8. Quality of egg especially fill egg yolk base on age and supply of food and can differ from one population to other population.

source : M. Ichsan Effendie

Fecundity with race

Fecundity with race.

different Stok Fecundity of [is] same species have been weared for the distinguishment of race by many researcher. Different race have the nature of large size unegual fecundity and so do its egg. Hence species coming from one arrest area can know from amount of its egg. Pursuant to this matter, population can know heterogeneous or homogeneous. Fishs from one species live in various habitat like different river or in territorial water which, differing latitude possible have difference of egg in its its.

source : M. Ichsan Effendie

Jumat, 15 Agustus 2008

Fecundity of the size egg

Fecundity of the size egg.

Egg size measure [is] usually weared to determine the quality of related to egg yolk content where king sized egg yield king sized larva than small fairish. In making comparison of egg size measure with fekunditas have to come from [is] same ovari [of] its maturity storey;level. [Is] often anticipated that fecundity of the size egg have negative correlation [to]. [At] prolific fish duplicate to be got that egg [released] [at] small fairish breeder later;then. Although [do] not there are at all of fish [is] but got that egg size measure and fish footage have positive correlation [to], where this matter [is] followed [by] prolific king sized fish o!eh beforehand.

Source : M. Ichsan Effendie

doubled Breeder Fecundity

doubled Breeder Fecundity.

prolific fish repeatedly during llama will entangle problem of reserve egg and egg which have expanded. Its criterion that is there [is] [do] not it[him] egg yolk. Amount of egg having its [counted/calculated] egg yolk it[him] for that season. This criterion according to Bagenal ( 1978) have been used by some writer. De Sylva ( in Bagenal, 1978) have succeeded to anticipate the amount of generation ( egg amount and batch) every generation.
If fish have egg which consist of some group, hence egg group which have expanded will be [released] at one time. By comparing the amount of egg which have had egg yolk with amount of egg which [is] very expand, to be assumed can give the amount of egg [at] [released] group every season.

Weighing Fecundity

Weighing Fecundity.

Absolute Fecundity [is] often attributed to weight, because weight more is coming near [is] condition of that fish than length. But in [relation/link] of fecundity weighing there are some difficulty. Heavy will quickly change when prolific season. For example fish of salmon and of sidat [doing/conducting] journey before is prolific, they [shall] no longger take food, become to fast to place of breed. Material for its growth [of] him taken away from [by] network of somatik. Therefore if participating correlation of fekunditas weighing of somatik in comparing one population with population or among two season have to take a care.

If absolute fecundity mathematically total weighing correlation [is] including weight of gonad will generate difficulty statistically. Cause will be [entered/included] [by] egg in number larger ones of fish which in fact small berfecundity. Also [is] same difficulty will arise if fecundity attributed to factor of[is condition of, because in factor of[is condition of that that is:

entangling total weight [of] that fish. Because of this difficulty, hence many writer use fecundity relative, that is heavy association egg weight [of] fish. But use relatifpun fecundity get difficulty also, because useless compare one population otherly or situation from one year to other year. Initialy usage of that fecundity to express result of anticipating that correlation [among/between] weighing fecundity [is] linear, which [is] its formulation [is]:

F = a + bW.

In some cases use the formula [of] its result [of] goodness, but some writer get that correlation [among/between] weighing fecundity [is] is not linear. In this [relation/link] require to be paid attention that weight of gonad in the early maturity differ from weight of[is end of that maturity because growth of contained egg [it]. During the growth process happened precipitation of gradual egg yolk and also happened hydration when almost come near breeding.
Source : M. Ichsan Effendie

measuring fecundity with fish length

population fecundity relative from one hundred, a thousand or ten thousand individual of certain age group. Amount of fish in every age class multiplied [by] mean fecundity of that age. Result of which [is] got from suming all age group give fecundity relative. this fecundity can differ from year to year because many individual which is not prolific annually. If in one year, there are individual in number many will cause low fecundity in the year the other.

fecundity with length.
fecundity [is] often attributed to length than weighing, because its decrease length [of] infinitesimal relatip [do] not like weight able to decrease easily. Matter which must be paid attention in making [relation/link] of fecundity with length if taking sampel which repeatedly have to take a care, because if taken fish when gonad [is] growing this matter [do] not represent growth of somatik. Become here difference there must be [among/between] growth of somatik with growth of gonad. Most [all] writer plot absolute fecundity with fish length and that [relation/link] [is]:

F = fecundity,
L = long [of] fish,
and a of b represent got konstanta of data.
The equation if [is] likened into to logarithm will get equation of straight line regresi

Log F = log a + b log L

Price Exponent of b range from 2,34 - 5,28 and most gyrating above 3 ( Bagenal, in Gerking, 1967). There [is] also making Correlation [among/between] fecundity with length by ordinary regresi later;then dites seen its correlation coefficient. Hoyt ( 1971) getting equation for the length of fish with amount of ripe egg of fish of silver jaw ( Bucata Ericymba) that is

Y = (- 1379,3 + 32,74 X )
with correlation coefficient of r = 0,89.

This correlation show strong and positive [relation/link] from both variable. Additional [of] length have correlation [to] with accretion of egg. Healy ( 1971) getting linear correlation almost [among/between] fecundity with fish length of sand goby ( Minutes pallas Gobius), but variation [of] among fish Which [is] of uniform length, fecundity different each other and its correlation coefficient lower that is r = 0,55. In investigating fish of fall fish ( Corporalis Semotilus), Reed ( 1971) getting [relation/link] [among/between] fecundity with fish length [is].

F = - 14.913,3 + 76,7 L

with correlation coefficient of r = 0,958.

Dennison and of Bulkley ( 1972) during twice accurate summer [of] potency reproduce fish of bullhead ( Ictalurus braze) [in] Clear Lake Iowa, for example getting that [there] no correlation [among/between] fecundity with body length ( Picture 7). Correlation coefficient got for year 1969, r = 0,19 and for year 1970, r = 0,09. Lowering of got correlation possible because of extreme rotation boundary of fecundity [at] [is] same size measure represent matter which [do] not habit. Batts ( 1972) getting low r [at] fish of skipjack poor (Katsuwonus Pelamis ), showing fecundity which vary [at] [is] same footage.

sumber. M. Ichsan Effendie

Kamis, 14 Agustus 2008

fecundity [at] fish of Tilapia sp

fecundity [at] fish of Tilapia sp.

Lowe in Gerking ( 1975) expressing that fecundity [at] fish of Tilapia sp [is] the amount of that yielded fry during individual life spans. This matter of course very difficult once determining [him/ it] even not possible (to). Referring to nature of fish of mujair brooding on its childs in mouth, hence Bagenal ( 1978) proposing term of fecundity for the fish of mujair (Tilapia Mozambika) [is] as follows:

a. " Fecundity Ovarian" that is amount of existing matured egg in ovary before [released] in breeding
b. " Fecundity Brooding" that is amount of egg which [is] brooding on in its mouth.

Fish which including into faction of vivipar, that is fish producing children him, having three kinds of fecundity that is
a. " Fecundity Prefertilized" that is amount of egg in ovary before happened impregnation
b. " Fecundity Fertilized" That is amount of egg which [is] fruit in ovary
c. " Fecundity Larval" [is] the amount of egg which have hatched to become larva but not yet been [released].

According to Bagenal ( 1967), for the fishs of and tropik of sub-tropik, definition of fecundity most compatible remember condition [is] the amount of egg [released] by fish in its life spans mean. This relevant parameter in population study and can be determined [by] because maturity every fish when first time can know [by] as well as its speed statistic [of] him can be determined also in management of good fishery. Nikolsky ( 1969) expressing that capacities reproduce from breeding of certain population to him [him/ it] have to use population fecundity relative.

Source : Moch. Ichsan Effendie

fecundity [at] big and old fish

fecundity [at] big and old fish.

Fishs the old man and is big [of] its size measure have smaller fecundity relative. Generally higher fecundity relative compared to with individual fecundity. fecundity relative will become maximum [at] fish faction which still is young ( Nikolsky, 1969).

Source : Moch. Ichsan Effendie

fish relative fecundity

fish relative fecundity.

fecundity relative [is] the amount of egg per set of length or weight. this fecundity even also in fact deputize individual fecundity [is] if not paid attention fish length or weight. Applying of fecundity relative have [done/conducted] many by some researcher people. There [is] taking weight as its divisor and there [is] also taking length. May even exist combining usage of fecundity relative that is ovari per set of weight with fish length. Good but individual fecundity and also fecundity relative [do] not show capacities reproduce from population because individual fecundity [do] not show population fecundity. Usage of fecundity relative with set of weight according to Bagenal ( Gerking, 1967) more coming near to condition of itself fish from [at] with length. Even according to Nikolsky ( 1969) more is expressing [of] female fish status and quality of from egg if weight weared without digestive appliances weight [of] its food.

Source : Moch. Ichsan Effendie

total fecundity [of] fish. fecundity in fish ovari.

total fecundity [of] fish.
fecundity in fish ovari.

In ovari usually there [is] two kinds of egg size measure, small and big. That big egg will be [released] in the year and small will be [released] next in the year. But often happened if condition of goodness, small egg even also will be [released] to catch up big egg. Referring to this matter hence suggested to determine fish fecundity if that fish ovari [is] in maturity phase which to IV ( according to Nikolsky) and momentary best before happened breeder.
individual fecundity will difficult to apply for fishs performing [a] breeding several times in one year, because containing egg from various storey;level and will be more be difficult again determine really egg will be [released] in the year to come. Become this good individual fecundity applied [at] fishs performing [a] annual breeding or one year once. Referring to this matter hence irrelevant individual fecundity with total fecundity. Royce ( 1972) expressing that total fecundity [is] the amount of yielded [by] egg [is] fish during life.

Source : Moch. Ichsan Effendie

Rabu, 13 Agustus 2008



Knowledge concerning fekunditas represent one of [the] aspect playing a part important in fishery biology. Fish Fekunditas have been studied not only representing one of [the] aspect of history natural, but in fact there [is] its [relation/link] with population dynamics study, nature of rasial, production and problem of stok-rekruitmen ( Bagenal, 1978). From fekunditas indirectly we earn to appraise the amount of fry to be yielded and will determine also the amount of fish in pertinent age class. In this [relation/link] of course there [is] other factors which play a part important and very hand in glove its [relation/link] with strategy reproduce in order to maintaining attendance of that species [in] nature.

Besides, fekunditas represent a[n subyek able to correspond to all kinds of condition especially with response to food. Amount of [released] egg represent one link link [among/between] one generation with next generation, but in general [there] no clear [relation/link] [among/between] fekunditas with amount of yielded egg.

Kinds of fekunditas. Have many efforts to explain and make definition concerning fekunditas. Possible nearest definition with its truth [is] like what there are [at] fish of Salmon ( Onchorynchus Sp). This Fish during its life only once breeding and later;then die.

All eggs to be [released] [by] when breeding that's such with fekunditas. But because that existing fish species all kinds of in character each, hence some researcher pursuant to to mentioned [common/ public] definition more developing again definition of fekunditas referring to [his/its] accurate aspects. For example difficulty of arising out in determining that fekunditas [is] heterogeneous egg composition, maturity storey;level of gonad which [do] not [is] uniform the than fish population intended, different breeding time and others. Bagenal ( 1978) differentiating [among/between] fekunditas that is amount of matured egg to be [released] with fertilitas that is amount of matured egg which [released] by mains.

According to Nikolsky ( 1963) amount of egg which there are in fish ovari named [by] individual fekunditas, absolute fekunditas or total fekunditas. In this case reckon egg which [is] its different size measure. Therefore in reckoning [him/ it] have to involve all egg size measure and each have to get [is] same opportunity. Its consequence have to take egg of some part of ovari ( if non with method of numerikal). If there [is] clear egg looked to be its different size measure in different area with [is] same treatment have to be [counted/calculated] is separate. But in the year 1969, Nikolsky hereinafter express that individual fekunditas [is] the amount of egg of that year generation to be [released] [by] that year also.

Source : M. Ichsan Effendie

Technics [of] Pickling of gland of hipofise fish

Technics [of] Pickling of gland of hipofise fish.

1. Using acetone ( way of running dry).
Pickling by using acetone can be [done/conducted] by including gland of hipofise into bottle contain acetone. Acetone thrown [is] then changed with new acetone, whereas gland - hipofise remain to be let in bottle. Acetone [is] later;then thrown again and changed with new acetone [is] then hushed [by] during 8 [Hour/Clock]. After 8 acetone [hour/clock] [released] again and changed with new acetone [is] then let [by] during 24 [hour/clock]. After 24 [hour/clock], acetone evaporated with small saucer or paper Lie down. Gland of Hipofise last [entered/included] into bottle. [is] later;then given [by] cotton and [its] mouth [is] corked with [cover/conclusion] till last meeting kept in desikator.

2. Using alcohol ( way of is wet).
gland of Hipofise soaked in absolute alcohol 96%. Alcohol [is] later;then thrown and changed with new alcohol. Afterwards, alcohol thrown again and changed with new alcohol [is] then hushed [by] during 24 [hour/clock]. After 24 [hour/clock], alcohol thrown and changed with newly [is] then called a meeting to order and [is] ready to kept [by] [in] refrigator. With pickling [of] gland of hipofise can be kept sufficiently long, that is [among/between] 5-8 year and still effective enough to be used. When will be used, each gland evaporated in front.

Exploiting Kept Gland.

Usage of gland of hipofise which have been kept according to standard have many advantage for example as follows.

1. Can exploit fish consume the expense of which [do] not be majored for donor, so long as the fish have matured genitals.

2. More is facilitating [of] execution of activity of hipofisasi because some activity phase needn't be [done/conducted] again

3. Can overcome the rare of donor for purilieuss because donor transportation fee relative [is] equal to transportation fee for mains. With gland of hipofise result of pickling hence raw material transportation fee can be depressed till 60%-80%.

4. Can economize usage of food expense and pool.

Selasa, 12 Agustus 2008

way of keeping gland of hipofise fish

way of keeping gland of hipofise fish.

Exploiting of gland of hipofise effective [is] at the most one [hour/clock] since dead fish. But, if supply of gland of hipofise had [by] quite a lot hence the glands can be conserved. Important matter which require to be paid attention in moth-balls gland [is] the gland have to come from fish which have matured genitals.

Because of, [among/between] big fish and which [is] gland size measure [is] [is] same hipofise relative hence during depository have to be remembered [by] weight of[is each fish which [is] its gland [is] kept. This matter require to anticipate [by] because a time gap [among/between] early depository and its use possible sufficiently long is. Depository [of] gland of hipofise in general can be [done/conducted] with two way of, that is using alcohol and acetone.

Senin, 11 Agustus 2008

Hatch and Treatment of Seed pangasius

Hatch and Treatment of Seed.

For the efficacy of hatch of egg, require to be [done/conducted] [by] the following stages;steps
1) Wash out, then dry hatch basin
2) Install hapa to incubate egg
3) Pool hatch basin content with clean water
4) Enhancing anti mushroom. In the form of Ymohm Ich atauMitz counted litre cc o,o5 irrigate into hatch basin
5) Accomodating temperature [in] hatch basin. [In] Bogor, to boost up temperature by using primus stove. egg of Pangasius will hatch in tempo 28 [hour/clock] [at] room temperature 26-28 Celcius .
6) Removing seed which [is] barn old age 1 day into fairish aquarium 8o cm x 45 cm x 45 cm counted 5oo tail / aquarium. Irrigate exist in in aquarium better have diaerasi during at least 24 [hour/clock] 7) Look after burayak during 15 day in aquarium.

Conservancy of Magnification and seed.
Conservancy [done/conducted] [by] [in] pool which have been fertilized one week previously. utilized manure usually chicken dirt counted 1 singk / pool m2. Pool filled [by] water [so that/ to be] growing natural food which required by pangasius benij. As for magnification of patin [done/conducted] [by] [in] pool owning inclusion door and dismissal of separate water. Pool may be fertilized beforehand or [do] not. To obtain;get result of optimal, magnification of patin require [gift/ giving] of side dish. For the fish of patin, additional pakan can use smooth bran [of] market garbage clan. Market garbage can in the form of vegetable result of merchant assortment [in] market which not yet been mixed with inorganic garbage. The food very taken a fancy to by pangasius.

Breeding pangasius

Breeding pangasius.

Breeding of fish of patin [is] usually [done/conducted] with technique marry to inject because mains of patin [do] not [is] influenced. to [be] prolific if/when with natural environment. Technique breeder of induction ( breeding induce) by inseminating gland condensation of hipofise mixed with ovaprim. Usually, this technique [is] followed with sequence technique ( stripping) [so that/ to be] castaway egg [do] not and can be incubated in aquarium.

Pool construction.
Pool Mains of Pangasius separate located masculine usually with mains pool of Pangasius female. If/When is not available enough pool, usually only provided [by] pool for just female mains. easier Masculine mains searched to farmer of fish compared to readily female mains lay eggs.

good pool usually in form of is square [of] length because more is guarantying [of] sirkulasi irrigate and water down arrest with net. Pool better obtain;get pasokan irrigate from channel inclusion of direct water, non from other pool. [The] mentioned aim to to avoid influence of disease [pass/through] water of fish which [is] infection. Besides, pool better have perfect dismissal door in form of monik ( construction of outlet pool ) to facilitate draining of pool water during quickly.

For the breeding of pangasius with technique marry to inject, have to be drawn up [by] donor in the form of matured goldfish [of] genitals. Usually, donor weared [by] [is] masculine goldfish because easier obtain;get matured male [of] genitals compared to matured female [of] genitals, besides because economic reason. food for seed also have to be drawn up. food which in the form of lilliputian prawn [of] Daphnia incubated in place of hatch in the form of given [by] gallon [is] hole basically and placed in inversed position.

Breeding .
Breeding of fish of pangasius usually pass some the following activity a. Heavy enumeration [of] donor Generally is, female [of] pangasius given [by] 3 dose. Therefore, to 5 female mains singk [of] pangasius, donor which must be drawn up [by] counted 15 singk. [For a] while for masculine mains which only 1 dose so that require to be drawn up [by] donor as heavy as 5 singk to 5 masculine mains singk. Become, to once execution of Breeder of fish of patin as heavy as 5 singk, required [by] goldfish as heavy as 20 singk as donor. If/When donor goldfish mean which have matured genitals as heavy as 0,5 singk hence there [is] [about/around] V tail which must be cut [by] head and taken [by] its gland [of] him.

Intake of gland of hipofise.
This activity [is] [done/conducted] by cutting is athwart [of] goldfish head so that separated from its body. Hereinafter, trap goldfish confronted to to the to be cut lengthwise start from nostril. Ex- this last slice will show brain which [is] white chromatic follow apartly, Afterwards, the brain carried over [by] paper filter with blood remains and pinset and also fat cleaned with cotton. After cleanness, will see gland of hipofise white chromatic equal to item of merica ( 1-2 mm) which located in elementary hollowing [of] skull bone.

Making of gland extract.
Making of gland extract [done/conducted] [by] After all gland of hipofis,4 taken away from [by] donor fish skull. The gland have to be cleaned on paper filter. Later;Then, gland [entered/included] into destroyer glass and enhanced [by] akuabides [among/between] 1,5-2 cc for the setup of kilogram of[is amount of mains to be injected. Dirt can be precipitated by condensation [entered/included] into centrifugal ( turn around ), both for electrical and also manual.

Inoculation [done/conducted] [by] after homogeneous condensation which [is] transparent locked out of [by] gland sediment by using spuit ( injection appliance). Inoculation of [done/conducted] [by] female mains 2 times [so that/ to be] is effective, while for just iantan enough once. First inoculation [is] usually [done/conducted] at 18.00 counted dose i [at] female mains. [both/ second] Inoculation [done/conducted] after 12 [hour/clock] of first inoculation that is at 06.00 counted 2 dose [at] female mains. As for masculine mains injected at the (time) of inoculation both [of] female mains. Inoculation [done/conducted] [at] flesh muscle part of back ( intramusculler), precisely rear back fin [about/around] parallel third or [both/ second] line with part of genitals. Injection needle with inclination of WO of back direction in 1-2 cm. After injected, both mains reentered to place relocation of each mains.

Stripping ( sequence). Sequence [done/conducted] [by] after 10-12 [hour/clock] of injection both. left holded Female mains by hand [in] part of right hand and back [in] part of stomach. Whereas right hand thumb massage berulangulang [at] part of stomach up at release hole. Egg accomodated in clean baskom which given [by] a few/little water. In the same way sequence [done/conducted] [at] masculine mains. After exit, sperma mixed with egg and swirled [by] slow with quill during 3-4 minute. Egg which have been mingled [by] dilution of sperma [is] later;then rinsed with clean water to eliminate the rest of dilution of sperma, feses, and blood.

Chosen Mains fish of Pangasius

Chosen Mains fish of Pangasius.
selected Mains usually come from special conservancy pool [of] mains and or adrift net. Usually, locked out of [by] masculine mains [of] female mains.
As for female mains characteristic and masculine mains which have made [by] good [of] the following mains.

Mains characteristic which with quality is :

Old age 3 year. Tired wt. 1,5-2 singk / tail. Stomach of big mains up at anus. Stomach felt smooth and soft if/when groped. wine-colored and Bloated Kloaka. Husk part of flimsy and flabby stomach. If/When [about/around] kloaka depressed, will go out some egg item which its for domed and its size measure [of] uniform.

Old age 2 year. Wt. 1,5-2 singk / tail. flimsy and flabby Stomach husk. If/When massaged, will go out dilution of sperma white chromatic. rose colored and Bloated genitals.

Habit eat and Habit multiply fish of Pangasius

1. Habit eat. [In] this fish nature [is] including is omnivorous. ( omnivora). Pangasius can eat small fishs, eating, detritus, insect, bulk, small udangudang, and mollusc

2. Habit multiply. fish of Pangasius hitherto not yet can be married naturally. Its of it still require excitement [so that/ to be] female mains will [release] its egg. Excitement taken [is] solidarity [among/between] marrying to inject ( breeding induce) with technique of stripping.

Habit of fish of pangasius Live [in] Nature

Habit of fish of pangasius Live [in] Nature. Ordinary Patin/pangasius [of] life [in] caves or hole [in] territorial water base. This fish have the character of nockturnal or avoid light and make a move active between two lights. Patin of[is including elementary fish which [is] life [in] great river and river estuary. Fish flesh of patin very crispy and delicious so that very liked [by] society.

Recognition of Type of Pangasius (Patin)

Frequently there [is] briny fish product which sold with fish lable of patin, though in fact [is] briny fish [of] bread jambal which (it) is true represent briny fish ossify one. Usually, patin very [is] delicious cooked as gulai, pepes, or other scalloping. But, patin cannot be fried crunchy like gourami, goldfish and also tilapia.

Recognition of Type. Fish of Patin have long body and is not scaly. its Body length can reach 120 cm. silvery white Chromatic body, while rather blue chromatic back. Form lead small relative Mouth reside in at the end of rather side under with two sensuous moustache tide as a means of. Back fish fin of patin have hard radius which turn into big and jagged patil [in] side its back. Soft radius [of] its back fin there [is] 6 or 7. [At] part of its back there are infinitesimal fairish fat fin. Fin go with the tide in form of symmetrical intersection.

its Anus fin [of] length consist of 30-33 soft radius, while stomach fin have 6 soft radius. Chest fin have 12-13 soft radius with a hard radius which turn into pricker appliance. Patin in fact [is] name for local fish of spread over Pangasius-Pangasius [in] Kalimantan and Sumatra. Nowadays, name of patin weared and popular to mention fish coming from Thailand, Pangasius Sutchi, what [is] before now recognized by the name of bangkok lele. recognized Patin now consist of ordinary patin which and albino patin which [is] white chromatic and red-eyed.

source : Heru Susanto

Minggu, 10 Agustus 2008

term fishery of newest continuation

- Pass to mature Egg : Condition of egg in ovary, because at the (time) of maturing [do] not happened impregnation so that become to pass from cooking, so that [do] not, earn fruit again

- Lorica : cover Rotifera

- Matured [of] egg : Ripe, ready for fruit / prolific

- Melanophore : vitamin Colour, black pigment [at] larva

- Morphologi : Form and outward appearance

- Morula : Mount growth of egg after impregnation, where setting have split more than 64 setting

- Neurola : Mount growth of egg after impregnation, where embryo nerve formation start to be formed

- Neuromast : Formation Nerve

- Oil Globule : Item Oil, fat reserve as source of energi to larva beside egg yolk , during 3 - 4 day

- Outlet : Pipe expenditure of water

- Seed Panti : Hatchery, a[n place conservancy of fish covering conservancy of mains candidate, mains, egg, larva, and seed

- Physical excitement : A[N way of to stimulate fish for breeding by environmental manipulation physically, like is high [of] water, temperature

- Copy : Situation of ovary minimize because happened absorbtion return by fish body

- Striping : A[N way of expenditure of egg / sperma by massaging stomach of frontage toward hole of genital

- Turbidity : size measure looked to be situation of water by eye, particle rate of tersuspensi underwater.

size white shark

A typical adult great white shark measures 4 to 4.8 m (13 to 16 ft) with a typical weight of 680 to 1,100 kg (1,500 to 2,450 lb), females generally being larger than males. The maximum size of the great white shark has been subject to much debate, conjecture, and misinformation. Richard Ellis and John E. McCosker, both academic shark experts, devote a full chapter in their book, The Great White Shark (1991), to analysing various accounts of extreme size.
Today, most experts contend that the great white shark's "normal" maximum size is about 6 m (20 ft), with a "normal" maximum weight of about 1,900 kg (4,200 lb).

For several decades, many ichthyological works, as well as the
Guinness Book of World Records, listed two great white sharks as the largest individuals caught: an 11 m (36 ft) great white captured in Southern Australian waters near Port Fairy in the 1870s, and an 11.3 m (37 ft) shark trapped in a herring weir in New Brunswick, Canada in the 1930s. While this was the commonly accepted maximum size, reports of 7.5 to 10 metre (25 to 33.3 ft) great white sharks were common and often deemed credible.

Great white shark caught off Hualien County, Taiwan on May 14, 1997. Reportedly[citation needed] almost 7 metres in length and weighing 2500 kg.
Some researchers questioned the reliability of both measurements, noting they were much larger than any other accurately-reported great white shark. The New Brunswick shark may have been a misidentified
basking shark, as both sharks have similar body shapes. The question of the Port Fairy shark was settled in the 1970s, when J.E. Reynolds examined the shark's jaws and "found that the Port Fairy shark was of the order of 5 m (17 ft) in length and suggested that a mistake had been made in the original record, in 1870, of the shark's length.

Ellis and McCosker write that "the largest White Sharks accurately measured range between 19 and 21 ft (6.4 m) [about 5.8 to 6.4 m], and there are some questionable 23-footers [about 7 m] in the popular — but not the scientific — literature". Furthermore, they add that "these giants seem to disappear when a responsible observer approaches with a tape measure." (For more about legendary exaggerated shark measurements, see
the submarine).

The largest specimen Ellis and McCosker endorse as reliably measured was 6.4 m (21 ft) long, caught in
Cuban waters in 1945; though confident in their opinion, Ellis and McCosker note other experts have argued this individual might have been a few feet shorter. There have since been claims of larger great white sharks, but, as Ellis and McCosker note, verification is often lacking and these extraordinarily large great white sharks have, upon examination, all proved under the 20-21 ft limit.
For example, a much-publicized female great white said to be 7.13 m (23.4 ft) was fished in Malta in 1987 by Alfredo Cutajar. In their book, Ellis and McCosker agree this shark seemed to be larger than average, but they did not endorse the 7.13 m (23.4 ft) measurement. In the years since, experts eventually found reason to doubt the claim, due in no small part to conflicting accounts offered by Cutajar and others. A BBC photo analyst concluded that even "allowing for error ... the shark is concluded to be in the 18.3 ft (5.6 m) range and in no way approaches the 23 ft (7.0 m) reported by Abela." (as in original)

According to the Canadian Shark Research Centre, the largest accurately measured great white shark was a female caught in August 1988 at
Prince Edward Island off the Canadian (North Atlantic) coast and measured 6.1 m (20 ft). The shark was caught by David McKendrick, a local resident from Alberton, West Prince.

The question of maximum weight is complicated by the unresolved question of whether or not to account for the weight of a shark's recent meals when weighing the shark itself. With a single bite, a great white can take in up to 14 kg (31 lb) of flesh, and can gorge on several hundred kilograms or pounds of food.

Ellis and McCosker write in regards to modern great white sharks that "it is likely that [Great White] sharks can weigh as much as 2 tons", but also note that the largest recent scientifically measured examples weigh in at about 2
tonnes (1.75 short tons).
The largest great white shark recognized by the
International Game Fish Association (IGFA) is one landed by Alf Dean in south Australian waters in 1959, weighing 1,208 kg (2,660 lb). Several larger great white sharks caught by anglers have since been verified, but were later disallowed from formal recognition by IGFA monitors for rules violations

Anatomy and appearance White Shark

The great white shark has a robust large conical-shaped snout. It has almost the same size upper and lower lobes on the tail fin (like most mackerel sharks, but unlike most other sharks).
Great white sharks display
countershading, having a white underside and a grey dorsal area (sometimes in a brown or blue shade) that gives an overall "mottled" appearance. The colouration makes it difficult for prey to spot the shark because it breaks up the shark's outline when seen from a lateral perspective. When viewed from above, the darker shade blends in with the sea and when seen from below casts a minimal silhouette against the sunlight.
Great white sharks, like many other sharks, have rows of
teeth behind the main ones, allowing any that break off to be rapidly replaced. A great white shark's teeth are serrated and when the shark bites it will shake its head side to side and the teeth will act as a saw and tear off large chunks of flesh. Great white sharks often swallow their own broken off teeth along with chunks of their prey's flesh.

Source : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Great_white_shark

History Aquaculture,

Aquaculture has been used in China since circa 2500 BC. When the waters lowered after river floods, some fishes, mainly carp, were held in artificial lakes. Their brood were later fed using nymphs and silkworm feces, while the fish themselves were eaten as a source of protein. By a fortunate genetic mutation, this early domestication of carp led to the development of goldfish in the Tang Dynasty.
Hawaiian people practiced aquaculture by constructing fish ponds (see Hawaiian aquaculture). A remarkable example from ancient Hawaii is the construction of a fish pond, dating from at least 1,000 years ago, at Alekoko. According to legend, it was constructed by the mythical Menehune. The Japanese practiced cultivation of seaweed by providing bamboo poles and, later, nets and oyster shells to serve as anchoring surfaces for spores. The Romans often bred fish in ponds.
The practice of aquaculture gained prevalence in
Europe during the Middle Ages, since fish were scarce and thus expensive. However, improvements in transportation during the 19th century made fish easily available and inexpensive, even in inland areas, causing a decline in the practice. When the first North American fish hatchery was constructed on Dildo Island, Newfoundland Canada in 1889, it was the largest and most advanced in the world.
Americans were rarely involved in aquaculture until the late 20th century, but
California residents harvested wild kelp and made legal efforts to manage the supply starting circa 1900, later even producing it as a wartime resource.[2]

Tilapia, a commonly farmed fish due to its adaptability
Actually, there was keen interest in aquaculture in the United States as early as 1859 when Stephen Ainsworth of West Bloomfield, NY began his experiments with brook trout. By 1864 Seth Green had established a commercial fish hatching operation at Caledonia Springs, near Rochester, NY. By 1866, with the involvement of Dr. W. W. Fletcher of Concord Mass, artificial fish hatching operations were under way in both Canada and the United States.
In contrast to agriculture, the rise of aquaculture is a contemporary phenomenon. According to professor Carlos M. Duarte About 430 (97%) of the aquatic species presently in culture have been domesticated since the start of the 20th century, and an estimated 106 aquatic species have been domesticated over the past decade. The domestication of an aquatic species typically involves about a decade of scientific research. Current success in the domestication of aquatic species results from the 20th century rise of knowledge on the basic biology of aquatic species and the lessons learned from past success and failure. The stagnation in the world's fisheries and overexploitation of 20 to 30% of marine fish species have provided additional impetus to domesticate marine species, just as overexploitation of land animals provided the impetus for the early domestication of land species
In the 1960s, the price of fish began to climb, as wild fish capture rates peaked and the human population continued to rise. Today, commercial aquaculture exists on an unprecedented, huge scale. In the 1980s, open-netcage salmon farming also expanded; this particular type of aquaculture technology remains a minor part of the production of farmed finfish worldwide, but possible negative impacts on wild stocks, which have come into question since the late 1990s, have caused it to become a major cause of controversy.

source : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aquaculture